August is drawing near, and this means that very soon we will be enjoying grapes. It would be nice to tighten the theoretical base and figure out which grapes have useful properties and contraindications. Would a sweet berry be helpful for a person losing weight? Are all varieties and species equally healthy? Do the benefits and harms for the body differ when women, men, children eat grapes? We will reveal these and many other questions in the material as detailed as possible.
When nutritionists explain why grapes are useful and harmful, they start with the good old truth: everything is good in moderation. Using 10 – 15 large berries per day, you will enrich your body with vitamins A, C, B 6, folates, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium. It is impossible not to mention flavonoids, which for the human body play the role of a kind of "time machine", slowing aging, neutralizing the influence of free radicals. Fans of diets and some branches of a healthy diet say that it is extremely undesirable to eat grapes at night, they say, berries contain a lot of sugar, which will negatively affect the figure. In fact, they get fat not from sweet fruits, but from appetite, which increases after eating grapes. So eating a few berries before bedtime is just harmless. But to supplement a hearty lunch or dinner with a tasty bunch, of course, is not worth it: stand for about a two-hour break.
The Harms for Grapes
As always, the question is whether grapes are harmful - we will answer ambiguously. With all its merits, grapes are harmful in chronic and acute diseases of the following spectrum:
- peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum;
- heart failure;
- suppuration in the lungs;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
The harmful properties of the fetus will manifest themselves as actively as possible, if you combine it in the menu with any fatty food, fish, raw vegetables and fruits, drink it with raw milk, mineral water and beer. Why is this incompatibility revealed? Because the combined use of these products leads to an upset stomach. And, of course, each berry in a bunch must be thoroughly washed under running warm water before use.
And grapes are harmful to those who suffer from allergies. Dark varieties show the greatest allergenic potential. Doctors recommend examining a blood or skin reaction to an allergy if, after taking grapes, even in small amounts, you experience itchy skin, redness, angioedema, bronchospasm, cough, swelling of the larynx, or abdominal discomfort, nausea, and vomiting. With such symptoms for health, it is very important to consult a specialist in time.The grapes are considered to be harmful to pregnant women in the last trimester of gestation. There is evidence of a negative effect on the function of the mammary glands.
The benefits of grapes
Ampelotherapy (grape therapy) is an effective method of treating a number of diseases, based on a diet with a lot of grape fruit or juice. Using this method, it has been experimentally proved that grapes are useful for normalizing water-salt metabolism. There is also an improvement in bronchial asthma, gout, depression, neurasthenia, urolithiasis, arrhythmias, edema, atherosclerosis. Before conducting a course of ampelotherapy, be sure to consult your doctor and take tests. For more information on the composition, effect and energy value of red and green European grapes, see Table 1 (USDA Nutrient database used).
Useful properties of grapes:
|USEFUL MATERIAL||AMOUNT, MG / 100 G||WHAT IS THE USE OF THEM|
|niacin||0.19||improved microcirculation and vasodilation, anticoagulant effect, stimulation of the production of gastric juice|
|riboflavin||0,07||heals the reproductive system, reduces eye fatigue, regulates the growth of nails and hair, normalizes the condition of the thyroid gland and skin|
|thiamine||0,07||an important participant in protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, vitamin B1 also increases appetite, so grapes should be eaten at the stage of weight gain and recovery from illness|
|vitamin C||10.8||grapes are useful and due to the high content of vitamin C, which means that with berries the body is saturated with antioxidants, aging slows down, immunity strengthens, blood formation improves|
|folacin||2 (mcg)||the product contains folic acid, which is useful for maintaining healthy cells, stabilizes the emotional background after childbirth and menopause, and is involved in intrauterine development|
|pyridoxine||0.09||with B6, proteins and fats are better absorbed, in the right dosage it prevents nervous and skin disorders, relieves nausea and muscle cramps, and has a diuretic effect|
|pantothenic acid||0.05||participates in the cellular process of energy production, treats acne (acne) in large doses; Is grape good for asthma and bronchitis patients? - yes, thanks to vitamin B5, which also restores the body after operations, burns, eczema|
|calcium||10||“accelerates” metabolism, activates the formation of enzymes and hormones, prevents the deposition of fat in the body|
|iron||0.36||protects the body from bacteria, a participant in the formation of hemoglobin and the synthesis of thyroid hormones|
|magnesium||7||a balanced intake of magnesium with calcium normalizes the condition of teeth and bones, Mg is needed for the health of nerves and muscles, the cardiovascular and endocrine systems, removes heavy metals and toxins from the body|
|phosphorus||20||significant phosphorus content explains why grapes are useful for recovery processes: it provides protein synthesis, normal tissue growth, promotes mental activity and coordinates acid-base balance|
|potassium||191||antiseptic properties, reduction of edema, soft tissue health, normalization of heart rhythm and water balance|
|zinc||0,07||prevention of diabetes and epilepsy, arthritis and rheumatism, accelerated wound healing, beautiful hair, strong bones, improvement of human mental abilities|
|manganese||0,07||diabetes prevention, regulation of blood glucose levels, normalization of nervous processes, cholesterol synthesis, participation in lipid metabolism|
|Calorie content per 100 g of product is 69 kcal|
What is grape useful for?
Since ancient times, the benefits of grapes for the body have been highly appreciated by specialists of different currents in medicine:
- diet therapy.
What exactly is grape useful for the body? It has a very balanced composition with organic acids (malic, tartaric), carotene, vitamin and mineral complex, volatile and enzymes, essential oils, coumarins, resins, fiber. For the human body, berries from the vine are considered a low-calorie product, but remember the high content of fructose and glucose - almost a quarter of the total weight of the berry!
Grapes are good for health because it is involved in many processes and phenomena:
- for the heart - the product improves contractile activity, rehabilitates after myocardial infarction;
- for the liver - removes toxins, uric acid, improves blood formation, cancer prevention;
- for the face - it slows down the aging process, tones, refreshes, gives elasticity, softens and smoothes wrinkles, and grape seed oil cleanses the skin well and is very pleasantly absorbed;
- for a person with a weakened immune system, both berries and juice are suitable - this is a powerful charge of energy and vigor, as well as an excellent stimulant of appetite, which will come in handy during the recovery period after illness and surgery.
In grapes, the benefits for women are very tangible. This applies to juicy purple berries, which help fight the early signs of breast cancer, and are also good for preventing age-related vision loss. A burgundy grape is useful for a woman to protect against infections, viruses and bacteria, including eliminating the unpleasant manifestations of herpes. The benefits of red grapes for a woman’s body during menstruation is manifested in a hemostatic effect, the prevention of anemia. The harm to a woman’s health can be noticeable if allergies, obesity, ulcers, enterocolitis are diagnosed.
What is the use of grapes for pregnant women? Are rumors true that a berry can be harmful during pregnancy? According to the standard recommendations of gynecologists and nutritionists, pregnant women can use the fruit, but only observing the measure, in addition, in the third trimester it is better to exclude it from the diet. Grapes during the gestation period are useful in that they provide the maternal and growing children's body with valuable nutrients, vitamins and minerals.
And what about grapes in the children's menu — will the benefits of such a diet be substantial? Modern pediatricians believe that grapes are useful for children to gently reduce pressure, improve brain and heart function, as well as to obtain the optimal dosage of potassium and natural sugars. It is recommended to give berries to children from the first year of life, but with a number of precautions:
- not with milk,
- it is impossible as a separate snack, for example, for an afternoon snack;
- it is best to choose green varieties instead of red and violet - so you reduce the allergenic potential
- carefully monitor the body's reaction (rash, abdominal discomfort) and increase the amount immediately, about once every two weeks.
Harm for children will be detected very quickly if you give grapes to kids with a tendency to caries, diabetes, overweight, allergies. Always watch the process of absorption of berries, if you give them whole, so that the child does not choke!
The proven benefits of grapes for men are the beneficial effects of polyphenols on the body. With a metabolic syndrome with high blood pressure and high sugar, with a background of lowering cholesterol and exceeding triglycerides in the blood, grapes help to cope with the symptoms. In addition, excess fat from the waist is gradually leaving - an additional bonus for the man’s body. Studies with daily use of raisins lasted 4 weeks, then there was an almost month-long break, and repeated analyzes showed an improvement in the situation of all subjects. Thus, grapes are useful for men in that when taken regularly, blood pressure decreases and blood counts normalize.
Which grapes are healthier
Vine growers answer the question, which grape variety is the most useful, very unequivocally - these are European black varieties. In the second place are green varieties, and the rating is completed by the favorite delicious raisin, which has no seeds and much less nutrients inside. Which grapes are healthier, black or white, we figured out, and now let's talk about the types of plants.
Brief characteristics of the main varieties and types of grapes:
|European||beautiful large fruits with a "canonical" taste, this kind is the most useful in composition, but sensitive to fungal diseases, so the berries are sprayed; fine wines are produced from European varieties|
|asian||very attractive clusters with the best taste, however, their shoots grow too wildly, occupying a large area of trellis|
|Amur||frost-resistant Amur grapes are grown in the Middle lane and in the North of Russia, in China and Korea; the berries taste rustic, from very sour to sweet, spherical, 12 mm in diameter, thick-skinned and juicy; the fruits are black, purple, dark blue in color, contain many medicinal components; interspecific hybrid of Amur and European grapes gives valuable raw materials - tasty, large and frost-resistant fruits|
|isabial||specific strawberry flavor, mucous flesh, increased resistance to diseases, such varieties are not quite popular with us, nevertheless, Americans and Japanese consider them normal|
Popular home grapes include the following varieties:
- White raisins (Thompson sidlis), Airen, Atlantic, Arcadia, Flora, Russian early, Veles - dessert varieties famous among breeders;
- Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Sauvignon Blanc, Grenache, Merlot, Chardonnay, Riesling - classic wine varieties (technical).
The most useful grape varieties are dark: they have the most vitamins and monosaccharides. Berries are eaten fresh, and grapes are also allowed for wine, preservation, preserves and raisins. Dark color occurs due to anthocyanins in the composition, which have a bactericidal, stimulating, choleretic, diuretic, laxative, decongestant, sedative effect on the body. The dark-fruited hybrids are more useful and tastier than all: Baikonur, Kodrianka, Nadezhda Azos, Atos, Black finger, Black cherry. All the benefits of homemade grapes are well studied by scientists, which we will discuss further.
The benefits of black grapes
There are reliable studies of the biological activity of polyphenols (anthocyanins) - data published in Medline, PubMed, Web of Science. What is useful for black grapes is the high content of natural dyes of anthocyanins, and we have summarized their useful properties.
- Antioxidant effect - substances regulate oxidative stress, as a result, the risk of oxidative damage to cellular components, DNA, proteins and lipids including is reduced. Extract of proanthocyanidins of grape pomace neutralizes free radicals, prevents the development of inflammation in the intestines with excessive consumption of carbohydrates and fats.
- A dark blue fruit and berry have an anti-cancer effect due to the reduction and restoration of damaged tissues and organs caused by peroxidation. Berry extracts have a greater effect on estrogen metabolism, which was revealed in experiments on female rodents.
- Dark grapes are useful for those who want to protect the body from systemic disorders. The ethanol extract of the Far Eastern Thunberg grape (Vitis thunbergii) showed high hepatoprotective activity in vitro and in vivo in experiments with modeling liver cirrhosis and hepatitis. Specific benefits for the body are manifested in the reduction of liver necrosis and fatty degeneration.
The harm of black grapes can occur with excessive dosage, in patients with diabetes mellitus (due to glucose), gastritis and ulcer. Relative contraindications - pregnancy and lactation. Particular caution when eating should be shown to children up to the second year of life.
Isabella grapes benefit and harm is the same as all dark varieties. In Isabella grapes, all the benefits are concentrated mainly in the skin and seeds, the leaves are also popular in alternative medicine. Flavonoids, catechins and polyphenols from pulp play the role of a natural “cleaner” for the body, rid of toxins, tone up, restore strength. The most valuable benefit of Isabella grapes is revealed in the nutrition of athletes, representatives of hard professions, weakened people, for example, patients. Isabella gives a certain harmful effect during fermentation, namely it forms methyl alcohol. When passing through the digestive tract, methanol turns into formic acid and formaldehyde - harmful toxins that are dangerous to health. Therefore, Europe banned the production of wine from Isabella at the legislative level.
In Lydia grapes, the benefits and harms are worthy of special mention. According to European concepts, Lydia grapes are harmed because of a large number of pectins, therefore, EU Directive No. 1493/1999, Art.19 and EU No. 883/2001, Art.21 The European Union has officially confirmed the ban on wines from hybrid grape varieties. The benefits of this variety are felt, first of all, in the environment of winegrowers: increased sugar content, high productivity, unpretentiousness in care, immunity to standard diseases of the species (powdery mildew, oidium, phylloxera). Lydia grapes are useful as a dessert variety, the main thing is to prevent juice fermentation
The benefits of red grapes
Low calorie content (67 kcal) and pronounced anti-inflammatory effect are the main beneficial properties of red grapes, which are inferior in popularity to other varieties. In many diets, including when losing weight, it will be appropriate on the menu. The energy value of berries is presented as follows:
- 0.72 g of protein;
- 0.16 g of fat;
- 17.2 g of carbohydrates.
Red grapes are useful for those who suffer from diseases of the kidneys, liver, blood vessels and heart, as well as joints. In red grapes, harm to the body is most pronounced for those suffering from diabetes, and, of course, contraindications are associated with reactions of individual intolerance. If the berries have a light pink hue, most likely it is a cultivated product grown by breeders, respectively, there will be less anthocyanins in it. Dark pink is wild.
Red Globe Red grapes are superior in benefits to their "colleagues": they say that it is useful for anemia, as well as for the health of the circulatory system as a whole. Hemoglobin rises to normal levels in just 3 weeks of taking red varieties with high iron content. For three months of regular use, memory will improve, which is especially true in childhood and old age. Harm can be detected if you suffer from chronic diseases (hypertension, intestinal upset, obesity, diabetes mellitus), so consult your doctor before eating.
Green grapes benefit and harm
The heat-loving white grape has dozens of varieties among several popular ones:
- Valentine, Bazhen, Husayn white - from the canteens;
- Riesling and Muscat - from technology;
- Aurora, Albillo - universal.
Useful properties for the body are a large number of tannins, organic acids, trace elements and vitamins. But the benefits of green grapes are also somewhat limited: it has no anthocyanins, and hence no antioxidant properties. Contraindications - overweight and diabetes, all as always. And we also selected data on how green grapes are useful for an average adult healthy body (per 200 g of berries):
- it contains a quarter of the daily requirement for vitamin K and the same amount of copper;
- potassium and ascorbic acid - 15% of the total daily intake;
- iron, magnesium, manganese, tocopherol and carbohydrates - 10%;
- and also white grapes are useful in that it contains phosphorus and calcium (about 5% of the daily dose).
In grape raisins, the benefit is the lowest allergenicity for the body. Fruits are 90% water. The beneficial properties of this green variety are the content of vitamins A, E, PP and B 9 . There are no bones in it, but sugar content is increased: an exceptional benefit for those who love a sweeter. Calorie content, depending on the variety, is 65-100 kcal / 100 g. Kish-mish grapes are useful for those who want to quickly recover after colds, sore throats, bronchitis, and food poisoning. Harm from use is possible against a background of pancreatitis, diarrhea, flatulence, ulcers, and gall diseases. The glycemic index of the product is 45 units, so it should not be eaten with diabetes.